Psoriasis is a chronic, noncommunicable, painful, disfiguring and disabling disease for which there is no cure and with great negative impact on patients’ quality of life (QOL). It can occur at any age, The reported prevalence of psoriasis in countries ranges between 0.09% and 11.4%, making psoriasis a serious global problem.
The etiology of psoriasis remains unclear, although there is evidence for genetic predisposition. The role of the immune system in psoriasis causation is also a major topic of research. Although there is a suggestion that psoriasis could be an autoimmune disease, Psoriasis can also be provoked by external and internal triggers, including mild trauma sunburn, infections, systemic drugs and stress .
Based on the type of skin lesions, location, the age of onset and course of disease, several clinical classifications of psoriasis are used (Table2).
The most frequently reported symptoms connected to psoriasis are:
Types of psoriasis
There are five official types of psoriasis: plaque, Guttate, Inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic, psoriasis. There are also subcategories of psoriasis types, which appear differently depending on where it is located on the body.
Types of psoriasis
Plaque psoriasis is the most common form of psoriasis, affecting 80 percent of people with psoriasis (NPF, 2012). It often appears on the elbows, knees, lower back, and scalp. It is characterized by thick red patches of skin, often with a silver or white layer of scale. Some people inherit genes linked to psoriasis, but most develop the condition suddenly due to a number of psoriasis triggers.
Guttate psoriasis appears in small red spots on the skin. It is the second most common form of psoriasis. The spots often appear on the torso and limbs, but they can also occur on the face and scalp. They are usually not as thick as plaque psoriasis, but they may develop into plaque psoriasis over time.
Flexural or inverse psoriasis often appears in skinfolds (under the breasts, in the armpits, or in the groin area). It is very red and often shiny and smooth. Most people with inverse psoriasis also have a different form of psoriasis in other places on the body.The sweat and moisture from skinfolds keeps this form of psoriasis from shedding skin scales, and the skin-on-skin contact can make inverse psoriasis very irritating. A variety of topical treatments are available and effective for inverse psoriasis.
Although not an official category of psoriasis, nail psoriasis is a manifestation of psoriasis that affects up to half of all individuals with psoriasis elsewhere on the body. The condition can often be confused with fungal infections and other infections of the nail.Nail psoriasis can cause nail pitting, grooves, discoloration, loosening or crumbling of the nail, thickened skin under the nail, and colored patches or spots under the nail. There is no cure for psoriatic nails, but some treatments may improve the health and appearance of nails.
Several types of psoriasis may appear on the scalp. Some may cause severe dandruff, while others can be painful, itchy, and very noticeable at the hairline. It can extend to the neck, face, and ears, and it may be in one large patch or many smaller patches.In some cases, scalp psoriasis can make even regular hair hygiene difficult. Excessive scratching can cause hair loss and scalp infections, and the condition can be a source of social stress.